Generating opengraph images for your Astro page

Facebook introduced the Open Graph protocol in 2010. It allows you to specify metadata about your page, such as the title, description, and image. This metadata is then in turn used by social media platforms to display a preview of your page when it is shared. The open graph image is especially important as it is the first thing people see when they see a link to your page. The image should either be an eye-catching image or an image resembling your site brand in some way. If you are anything like me and running an Astro site, you probably don’t want to manually create an image for every page you create. Luckily, there is a way to automate this process.

Satori - A simple opengraph image generator

If you’ve browsed the Internet a bit you might have come over web site image previews with a nice background and some text. I wanted to have something similar for my own site, and remembered something about a Vercel project that did just that. After a bit of searching I found Satori, a simple opengraph image generator. In short Satori allows you to write HTML and CSS that it then renders to an SVG. It does this using a custom rendering engine that handles layouting, typograhpy, and other things.

There are limitations however. It only supports a limited flexbox layout, has some font limitations, and only ltr languages. But for my use case it was perfect.

Using Satori with Astro

I did what any old developer would do and started searching for a pre-existing solution. I found some options, but none of them were quite what I wanted.

One blog post suggested using astro-og-canvar and generating static routes for each image./ This would work, but astro-og-canvas was too limited as it had a predefined layout. I wanted to be able to use my own layout and have more control over the image.

astro-opengraph-image seems like a promising effort. It is implemented as an Astro middleware using Satori to generate the image. Astro middleware run as part of the build process and can modify the output. Unfortunately it is not yet ready as it requires changes to Astro before it will work as intended.

Implementing my own solution

I decided to try and implement my own solution as an Astro plugin instead. To build a plugin you simply need to create a JavaScript function that optionally takes some options and returns an object with a name and hooks property. The name property is the name of the plugin, and the hooks property is an object of the hooks the plugin wants Astro to call. For example the astro:config:done hook is called when Astro is done configuring itself.

My plugin would run after Astro has built the site and generate an opengraph image for each page. To do this I would need to use the astro:build:done hook. The plugin function is called with an object containing the routes (a.k.a pages) Astro has generated.

 * Satori plugin for Astro, returns Astro plugin
export function satoriPlugin(): AstroIntegration {
  let astroConfig: AstroConfig;
  return {
    name: "satori-plugin",
    hooks: {
      "astro:config:done": ({ config }) => {
        console.log("Store config for satori-plugin");
        astroConfig = config;
      "astro:build:done": async ({ routes }) => {
        console.log("Build done, generate og:image for each route");

        const profilePic = (await readFile("./public/images/profile.jpeg")).toString("base64");
        const wavesSvg = (await readFile("./public/graphics/layered-waves-dark.svg")).toString("base64");
        const ogImages = routes
          .filter((route) => route.distURL?.pathname?.endsWith("index.html")?? false)
          .map((route) =>
            generateOgImage({ route, site: ?? "", profilePic, wavesSvg }),

        await Promise.all(ogImages);

The plugin function first run when Astro’s config done hook is done. It reads the Astro config and stores it in a variable we can access later.

Then when the Astro build is done the astro:build:done hook is called and we can start generating the opengraph images. We begin by reading the profile picture and the waves SVG file (my site uses an svg to add wavy gradients). This is to avoid having Satori load the files from remote URLs and every time we generate an image.

To find the routes to generate images for I simply filter the routes to only include the ones that ended with index.html. Other routes are not pages, but assets such as images and JavaScript files. The generateOgImage function is where the magic happens.

 * Generate an og:image for a given route
async function generateOgImage({ site, route, profilePic, wavesSvg }: GenerateOgImageProps) {
  // First we get the html for the route and parse out the title and description
  const html = await readFile(route.distURL!, { encoding: "utf-8" });
  const root = parse(html.toString());
  const title =
    root.querySelector("meta[name='title']")?.attributes["content"] ?? "";
  const author = "Snorre Magnus Davøen";

  // Then we generate the URL for the og:image
  const template = OgImageTemplate({ site, title, author, profilePic, wavesSvg });

  try {
    const svg = await satori(template, {
      width: 1200,
      height: 600,
      fonts: [
          // Same font as used on the site headers
          name: "shortstack",
          data: await readFile("./public/fonts/shortstack-regular.woff"),
          style: "normal",

    // calculate write path by replacing index.html with index-og.svg
    const writePath = route.distURL!.pathname.replace(

    // Convert svg to png 
    const resvg = new Resvg(svg, {})
    const png = await resvg.render()
    const pngBuffer = await png.asPng()
    await writeFile(writePath, pngBuffer);
  } catch (e) {
    console.error("Could not generate og:image for route", route.route, e);

Okay so there is a lot going on here, so let me explain each part in some more detail.

  1. First we read the html for the route and parse it using parse5. This allows us to find the title and description for the page using the meta tags. We have to do this as the title and description are not available in the astro:build:done hook data.

  2. Then we generate an SVG opengraph image using Satori. We pass in the title we found in the previous step, as well as the site name and author. The OgImageTemplate function is a simple function that returns a Satori template object structure. This HTML string is then passed to Satori to generate the SVG. We use the same font as the site headers to keep the style consistent.

  3. After we have generated the SVG we convert it to a PNG. Generally opengraph consumers will not support SVGs, so PNGs are a better choice. We use resvg to convert the SVG to a PNG. It is a fast XML to PNG converter with a focus on correctness.

  4. Finally we write the PNG to the file system in a location that matches the route. This is done by replacing index.html with index-og.png in the route path. For example the route /blog/astro-opengraph-image/index.html would be written to /blog/astro-opengraph-image/index-og.png.

Using the plugin

To use the plugin I simply add it to my astro.config.mjs file.

import { satoriPlugin } from "./src/plugins/satori-plugin"

export default {
  integrations: [

The result

In the end I got exactly what I wanted. A simple way to generate opengraph images for my Astro site. If you want to see the result you can check out the open graph image for this page. The full source code for my site is available on GitHub. Feel free to use it as a starting point for your own site.